A battalion, led by commandant Faurax Montier, was formed from two companies of the First Foreign Regiment and two others from the second regiment. The experiment was not generally considered a success by the Rhodesian commanders, however, and the company was disbanded in early 1978. Il est stationné au quartier « Commandant Forget », à Kourou en Guyane , après avoir quitté Diégo-Suarez à Madagascar en 1973. Thus, without making an allowance for losses, rotation, discharges, etc., the maximum number of Germans fighting in Indochina at any one time reached perhaps 7,000 out of 278,000. 9 products with this design. Retrouvez notre rayon Vêtement légion étrangère. Special uniforms were developed for these units, modeled on those of the French officered Camel Corps (Méharistes) having prime responsibility for the Sahara. This policy existed in order to allow recruits who wanted to restart their lives to enlist. "Le Boudin"[5][64] is the marching song of the Foreign Legion. This entry was posted on aprilie 18, 2011 at 4:43 pm and is filed under legiunea straina.You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. [36] The Foreign Legion began the process of reorganizing and redeploying to Algeria.[35]. Technical and practical training (alternating with barracks and field training) – three weeks. 6 Gazette des Uniformes 1997, United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (1978–present), Central African Republic conflict (2012–present), Parachute Company of the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment, Saharan Mounted Companies of the Foreign Legion, 1st Mounted Saharan Squadron of the Foreign Legion, 5th Heavy Weight Transport Company (CTGP), Mayotte (Departmental Collectivity of Mayotte), 1st Foreign Parachute Heavy Mortar Company, 2nd Marching Regiment of the 1st Foreign Regiment, 3rd Marching Regiment of the 1st Foreign Regiment, 4th Marching Regiment of the 1st Foreign Regiment, 2nd Marching Regiment of the 2nd Foreign Regiment, 21st Marching Regiment of Foreign Volunteers, 22nd Marching Regiment of Foreign Volunteers, 23rd Marching Regiment of Foreign Volunteers, Modern equipment and uniform of the French Army, Koninklijk Nederlandsch-Indische Leger (KNIL), Foreign Airborne Battalions and Regiments of France, List of battles involving the French Foreign Legion, List of militaries that recruit foreigners, Memorial to the American Volunteers, Paris, "French Foreign Legion structure in 2018", "Le Boudin – Musique de la Légion étrangère (vidéo officielle)", "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)", The French Foreign Legion – the last option for those desperate to escape the UK, "La Légion ne pleure pas ses morts, elle les honore ! Im Sinne des Völkerrechts gelten sie als reguläre Soldaten der französischen … Many of them were professional soldiers, attracted by the regiment's reputation—mostly former British soldiers, or Vietnam veterans from the United States, Australian and New Zealand forces—and these became a key part of the unit. Psychological and personality tests, logic tests (no education requirements), medical exam, physical condition tests, motivation and security interviews. For other uses, see, Tonkin Campaign and Sino-French War 1883–1888, Generals' putsch and reduction of Foreign Legion, Commandement de la Légion Étrangère Tenure (1931–present), Commandement de la Légion Étrangère (1931–1984), Commandement de la Légion Étrangère (1984–present), Countries that allow post-Foreign Legion contract, Rhodesian Light Infantry and 7 Independent Company, No further promotions are given to non-French Legionnaires on attaining the rank of, Since 1 January 2009, the French military rank of. On 21 June 1855, the Third Battalion, left Corsica for Crimea. A Complete History, Pages 26-29 "La Legion Etrangere 1831/1945, Raymond Guyader, Hors Serie No. On 29 September 1898, Samori Ture was captured by the French Commandant Gouraud and exiled to Gabon, marking the end of the Wassoulou Empire. ", Note that in the French language, the designation of "Mounted Company" (, The French word "Anciens" means literary in English, that which is old (as in more senior) or ancient. A battalion of two companies from the 2nd Foreign Regiment was created in early 1894 to pacify the Niger. In the French Army, since the 18th century, every infantry regiment included a small detachment of pioneers. After the cease fire took hold they conducted a joint mine clearing operation alongside a Royal Australian Navy Clearance Diver Team Unit. The original kepi cover was khaki and due to constant washing turned white quickly. The 38,000 strong French expeditionary force dispatched to Mexico via sea between 1862 and 1863 included two battalions of the Foreign Legion, increased to six battalions by 1866. Main operations during the Algerian War included the Battle of Algiers and the Bataille of the Frontiers, fought by 60,000 soldiers including French and Foreign Legion paratroopers. Ongoing interventions and rapid deployments two years later and the following years included in part: In September 1990, the 1st Foreign Regiment 1er RE, the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment 1er REC, the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment 2ème REP, the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment 2ème REI, and the 6th Foreign Engineer Regiment 6ème REG were sent to the Persian Gulf as a part of Opération Daguet along with the 1st Spahi Regiment, the 11th Marine Artillery Regiment, the 3rd Marine Infantry Regiment, the 21st Marine Infantry Regiment, the French Army Light Aviation, the Marine Infantry Tank Regiment, French paratroopers regiments including components of the 35th Parachute Artillery Regiment 35ème RAP, the 1st Parachute Hussard Regiment 1er RHP, the 17th Parachute Engineer Regiment 17ème RGP and other airborne contingents. © 2016 HAMAC ZONIE | Tous les droits reserver. On 11 October 1870 two provisional battalions disembarked via sea at Toulon, the first time the Foreign Legion had been deployed in France itself. [108][109] Other items of currently worn dress are the standard issue of the French Army. In January 1885 the Foreign Legion's 4th Battalion (chef de bataillon Vitalis) was deployed to the French bridgehead at Keelung (Jilong) in Formosa (Taiwan), where it took part in the later battles of the Keelung Campaign. Two foreign regiments, grouped with the 2nd Regiment of Zouaves, were part of the Second Brigade of the Second Division of Mac Mahon's Corps. Light vehicle drivers education (drivers license) – one week. All volunteers in the French Foreign Legion begin their careers as basic legionnaires with one in four eventually becoming a sous-officier (non-commissioned officer). Promoted after completion of training and, Promotion possible after one year of service and completion of the, Table note: Command insignia in the Foreign Legion use gold lace or braid indicating, Promotion after three years of service as. The Spanish Foreign Legion recruited foreigners until 1986 but unlike its French model, the number of non-Spanish recruits never exceeded 25%, most of these from Latin America. Worn only by ordinary legionnaires and non-commissioned officers beneath rank insignia,[76] each chevron denotes five years of service in the Legion. Donc, il n'y a pas de problème si vous avez eu un tatouage pour ceux qui veulent devenir légionnaire dans les prochaines années. [93] From the 1830s the legionnaires had worn a broad blue woollen sash around the waist,[94] like other European units of the French Army of Africa (such as the Zouaves or the Chasseurs d'Afrique), while indigenous units of the Army of Africa (spahis and tirailleurs) wore red sashes. Brevet Commando CHEF DE SECTION FORET / CEFE du 3°REI LÉGION ÉTRANGÈRE / Guyane . La légion étrangère est un corps de l'armée de terre française your own Pins on Pinterest Subsequent military campaigns included those during the Suez Crisis, the Battle of Algiers and various offensives in Algeria launched by General Maurice Challe including Operation Oranie and Operation Jumelles. Die Fremdenlegionäre sind in ihrem Mannschaftskern aus dem nichtfranzösischen Ausland angeworben. In World War I, the Foreign Legion fought in many critical battles on the Western Front, including Artois, Champagne, Somme, Aisne, and Verdun (in 1917), and also suffered heavy casualties during 1918. Respect for traditions, devotion to your leaders, discipline and comradeship are your strengths, courage and loyalty your virtues. The Foreign Legion was primarily used, as part of the Armée d'Afrique, to protect and expand the French colonial empire during the 19th century, but it also fought in almost all French wars including the Franco-Prussian War, World War I and World War II. While serving as Colonel of the 1st Foreign Infantry Regiment (1925–1931), Rollet was responsible for planning the centennial celebrations of the Legion's foundation; scheduling this event for Camarón Day 30 April 1931. White kepi (Képi blanc) of the French Foreign Legion, The FAMAS F1 is the standard issue rifle of the French Foreign Legion, Green beret (Béret vert) of the French Foreign Legion, Second pattern beret cap badge, worn until 1990, The Foreign Legion is the only unit of the French Army open to people of any nationality. Prior to 1914 units in Indo-China wore white or khaki Colonial Infantry uniforms with Foreign Legion insignia, to overcome supply difficulties. The battalion played an important role in Colonel Jacques Duchesne's offensive in March 1885 that captured the key Chinese positions of La Table and Fort Bamboo and disengaged Keelung. 13 products with this design. La durée du contrat. From 1882 until his capture, Samori Ture, ruler of the Wassoulou Empire, fought the French colonial army, defeating them on several occasions, including a notable victory at Woyowayanko (2 April 1882), in the face of French heavy artillery. [citation needed]. Die Légion étrangère [leʒjõetʁãˈʒɛːʁ], deutsch Fremdenlegion, ist ein Großverband des französischen Heers, in dem Freiwillige aus über 150 Nationen als Zeitsoldaten dienen. In 1892, King Behanzin was threatening the French protectorate of Porto-Novo in modern-day Benin and France decided to intervene. A Sous-officier's insignia is composed of three components; rank emblem, regimental patch, and seniority chevrons. 29th Apr, 2015. Novembre 1983 --- Le 3ème REI de la Légion étrangère en Guyane française. Shakos were soon replaced by the light cloth kepi, which was far more suitable for North African conditions. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How A proportion of the Swiss and Belgians are actually likely to be Frenchmen who wish to avoid detection. Soldats de la Légion étrangère - CHANSONS de la Legion etrangere/Lieder aus der Fremdenlegion. Legionnaire - Legion Etrangere. Die Fremdenlegionäre sind in ihrem Mannschaftskern aus dem nichtfranzösischen Ausland angeworben. With the defeat of the Imperial Army, the Second French Empire fell and the Third Republic was created. your own Pins on Pinterest Although initial reservations had been expressed about whether the Legion should be used outside Africa,[20] the Crimean experience established its suitability for service in European warfare, as well as making a cohesive single entity of what had previously been two separate foreign regiments. Madame, Monsieur, Bienvenue sur le site officiel des œuvres de l'Institution des invalides de la Légion étrangère à Puyloubier. Une cinquantaine de soldats de la Légion étrangère ont mené, dans la nuit de dimanche dernier à Kourou en Guyane, une très violente expédition punitive contre des civils. In 1939 the white covered kepi won recognition as the official headdress of the Foreign Legion to be worn on most occasions, rather than simply as a means of reflecting heat and protecting the blue and red material underneath. 15 Juillet 2020. No fewer than 72,833 served in Indochina during the eight-year war. In December 1883, during a review of the Second Legion Battalion on the eve of its departure for Tonkin to take part in the Bắc Ninh Campaign, General François de Négrier pronounced a famous mot: Vous, légionnaires, vous êtes soldats pour mourir, et je vous envoie où l'on meurt! See more ideas about commando, military insignia, legion etrangere. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Brevet Commando INSTRUCTEUR CEFE C.E.F.E 3°REI LÉGION ÉTRANGÈRE / Guyane at the best online prices at … The current pioneer platoon of the Foreign Legion is provided by the Legion depot and headquarters regiment for public ceremonies. Since, in view of the rugged Indochinese climate, older men without previous tropical experience constituted more a liability than an asset, the average age of the Foreign Legion enlistees was about 23. “Stage Jaguar au #3REI, en Guyane : début de la phase conduite de missions tactiques en forêt équatoriale ! You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site. Vous retrouvez ici un grand nombre d'articles militaire personnalisés, ainsi qu'une vaste gamme de vêtements légion étrangère à petits prix. Browse more videos. Part I : #INEDIT le #2REG au Mali #barkhane . Denmark, Norway, Germany and Portugal allow post-Legion enlistment while The Netherlands has constitutional articles that forbid it. RECRUTEMENT LEGION ETRANGERE. The Legion held the belief that it was fairer to make all new recruits use declared identities. Both battalions were renamed and their Legionnaires transferred from Indochina on 1 August 1954 to Algeria by 1 November 1954. Return to Aubagne before reporting to the assigned operational regiment – one week. All rights reserved . The Legion suffered the loss of 10,283 of its own men in combat: 309 officers, 1082 sous-officiers and 9092 legionnaires . Confirmation of motivation, initial medical check-up, finalising enlistment papers and signing of 5-year service contract. From 1959 a green beret (previously worn only by the legion's paratroopers) became the universal ordinary duty headdress, with the kepi reserved for parade and off duty wear. Free shipping for many products! Foreign legion) and the emblem of the French Foreign Legion, a grenade with sevel flames, pictured at the entrance to the headquarters of the Foreign Legion in Aubagne, France, 29 April 2015. Contrary to popular belief, the adoption of the Foreign Legion's slow marching speed was not due to a need to preserve energy and fluids during long marches under the hot Algerian sun. For the Legion, the context word in reference is referencing the. [110] Most of the Foreign Legion's commissioned officers are French with approximately 10 percent being Legionnaires who have risen through the ranks. Seuls les légionnaires, les marins et les prisonniers étaient bien connus pour se faire tatouer en France il y a 100 ans. Legionnaires parachute from a C-160 while training at Camp Raffalli in Corsica. Dien Bien Phu fell on 7 May 1954 at 17:30. In the 2000s, the Foreign Legion was deployed in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, Operation Licorne in Ivory Coast, the EUFOR Tchad/RCA in Chad, and Operation Serval in the Northern Mali conflict. For example, Australia and New Zealand may allow post-Legion enlistment providing the national has commonwealth citizenship. Current headquarters, garrison quartier Vienot of Aubagne is in France, just outside Marseille. He was subsequently credited with creating much of the modern mystique of the Legion by restoring or creating many of its traditions. German legionnaires were incorporated into the Wehrmacht's 90th Light Infantry Division in North Africa.[37]. Many recruits originate from Eastern Europe and Latin America. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Brevet Commando INSTRUCTEUR CEFE C.E.F.E 3°REI LÉGION ÉTRANGÈRE / Guyane at the best online prices at eBay! Dec 27, 2013 - This Pin was discovered by Adam Pamungkas. For having rallied to the generals' putsch of April 1961, the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment of the 10th Parachute Division was dissolved on 30 April 1961 at Zeralda. [citation needed], The French Foreign Legion was created by Louis Philippe,[13] the King of France, on 10 March 1831[14] Depuis sa création, la Légion étrangère à toujours été préoccupée par le devenir des anciens légionnaires et par le sort douloureux de ses blessés, invalides ou malades. The early years in Algeria were hard on the legion because it was often sent to the worst postings and received the worst assignments, and its members were generally uninterested in the new colony of the French. Most officers are seconded from the French Army though roughly 10% are former non-commissioned officers promoted from the ranks. [9] Promotion is concurrent with the ranks in the French Army. Following the Gulf War in the 1990s, the Foreign Legion helped with the evacuation of French citizens and foreigners in Rwanda, Gabon and Zaire. [125] The vast majority of the Rhodesian Army's foreigners joined the Rhodesian Light Infantry (RLI), a heliborne commando regiment with a glamorous international reputation;[126] this unit became colloquially known as the "Rhodesian foreign legion" as a result, even though foreigners never made up more than about a third of its men. Il est stationné au quartier « Commandant Forget », à Kourou en Guyane, après avoir quitté Diégo-Suarez à Madagascar en 1973. [54] French Status officers are either members of other units of the French Army affected to the Legion or promoted Légionnaires who have chosen to become French nationals. It stopped being an army of foreigners around 1900 when recruitment was restricted to Dutch citizens and to the indigenous peoples of the Dutch East Indies. In comparison to the 116-step-per-minute pace of other French units, the Foreign Legion has an 88-step-per-minute marching speed. Legion Etrangere - Honneur Fidelite. When only six survivors remained, out of ammunition, a bayonet assault was launched in which three of the six were killed. Discover (and save!) The Foreign Legion participated in the suppression of the Commune,[28] which was crushed with great bloodshed. While both the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1er REP), and the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment (2ème REP), were part of the operations of French parachute divisions (10ème DP and 25ème DP established in 1956), the Legion's 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1er REP), and the Legion's 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment (2ème REP), are older than the French divisions. French Foreign Legion. [18] Smaller national groups, such as the ten Englishmen recorded in December 1832, appear to have been placed randomly. In the 1960s and 1970s, Legion regiments had additional roles in sending units as a rapid deployment force to preserve French interests – in its former African colonies and in other nations as well; it also returned to its roots of being a unit always ready to be sent to conflict zones around the world. The Légion grenade emblem has seven flames rather than the usual five, and the two downward pointing seniority chevrons indicate at least 10 years of service. The Foreign Legion is basically equipped with the same equipment as similar units elsewhere in the French Army. [115], As of 2008, legionnaires came from 140 countries. AU $19.79. [100] This dress included a white sun helmet of a model that was also worn by Foreign Legion units serving in the outposts of Southern Algeria, though never popular with its wearers. All-white or light khaki uniforms (from as early as the 1890s) were often worn in the field or for ordinary duties in barracks. As a rule, and in order to prevent any particular nation from making the Foreign Legion into a Praetorian Guard, any particular national component is kept at about 25 percent of the total. AU $13.74 + AU $8.01 shipping . From Cotonou, the legionnaires marched to seize Abomey, the capital of the Kingdom of Dahomey. The Foreign Legion accepts people enlisting under a nationality that is not their own. The 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment 1er REP was disbanded on 30 April 1961. 15 products with this design. In gratitude, the city of Milan awarded, in 1909, the "commemorative medal of deliverance", which still adorns the regimental flags of the Second Regiment.[22]. Nov 30, 2016 - Explore Gene Potocki's board "French Commando Badges" on Pinterest. Afterwards transferred to Paris, Foreign Legion Recruitment Center. March (Marche Képi Blanc) – a 50-kilometer (31 mi) two-day march (25 km per day) in full kit, followed by the Kepi Blanc ceremony on the 3rd day. is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831. In combat, you act without passion and without hate, you respect defeated enemies, and you never abandon your dead, your wounded, or your arms. Also notable is the marching pace of the Foreign Legion. 15 products with this design. After a few skirmishes, the Queen Ranavalona III promptly surrendered. Though not named "Foreign Legion", the Dutch Koninklijk Nederlandsch-Indische Leger (KNIL), or Royal Netherlands-Indian Army (in reference to the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia), was created in 1830, a year before the French Foreign Legion, and is therefore not an emulation but an entirely original idea and had a similar recruitment policy. Il a été créé en 1920 et est héritier du régiment de marche de la Légion étrangère (RMLE). Throughout its four-year existence the Ever Victorious Army was mainly to operate within a thirty-mile radius of Shanghai. [29] During that time, insurrections against the Malagasy Christians of the island, missionaries and foreigners were particularly terrible. FRENCH FOREIGN LEGION-ETRANGERE 3º REI-Guyane-CARBET-avaliable shirt size - $64.95. It was renamed the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1er REP) after its third reformation.[40]. Soldats de la Légion étrangère - CHANSONS de la Legion etrangere/Lieder aus der Fremdenlegion. Later, a thousand of the rank-and-file of the Vichy Legion unit joined the 13e D.B.L.E. At the time of the Foreign Legion's centennial in 1931, a number of traditional features were reintroduced at the initiative of the then commander Colonel Rollet. A green tie and (for officers) a green waistcoat recall the traditional branch colour of the Foreign Legion. Most legionnaires still come from European countries but a growing percentage comes from Latin America. 6 Gazette des Uniformes 1997, Page 46 "La Legion Etrangere 1831/1945, Raymond Guyader, Hors Serie No. In the context word in reference, the use of "Anciens" (plural form, singular form being "Ancien") is referring to that which is old and senior. In the Foreign Legion, General Paul-Frédéric Rollet introduced the practice of awarding honorary Legion ranks to distinguished individuals, both civilian and military, in the early 20th century. [57][58] The Code of Honour was adopted in the 1980s. ", "Historique du 2 REI, La Creation (Creation)", "The French Intervention in Mexico (1862–67)", "Secret Défense – La Légion étrangère s'accroche à ses effectifs – Libération.fr", "History of the 2e REP, the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion, "Section Historique, L'Indochine of the 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment", "History of the 2e REP, the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment, "Ils ont commandé le 2éme REP, Regimental Commanders", "French Foreign Legion Prepares for Persian Gulf War". Brevet Commando CHEF DE SECTION FORET / CEFE du 3°REI LÉGION ÉTRANGÈRE / Guyane . During the First Indochina War (1946–1954), the Foreign Legion saw its numbers swell. Technical and practical training (alternating barracks and field training) – three weeks. During the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962), the Foreign Legion came close to being disbanded after some officers, men, and the highly decorated 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1er REP) took part in the Generals' putsch. In Israel, Mahal (Hebrew: מח"ל‎, an acronym for Mitnadvei Ḥutz LaAretz, which means Volunteers from outside the Land [of Israel]) is a term designating non-Israelis serving in the Israeli military. Initial training of 4–6 weeks at The Farm (La Ferme) – introduction to military lifestyle; outdoor and field activities. Naviguez en cliquant sur la photo. Créé en 1831 pour permettre l'incorporation de soldats étrangers dans l'Armée française, jusqu'à la fin de la guerre d'Algérie en … insigne régimentaire du 3°REI 3°R.E.I 3°Régiment Etranger d'Infanterie LÉGION. The French Foreign Legion (FFL; French: Légion étrangère, French pronunciation: ​[leʒjɔ̃ etʁɑ̃ʒɛʁ], L.É.) Legionnaire - Legion Etrangere. Both traced their origins to the Parachute Company of the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment commanded by Legion Lieutenant Jacques Morin attached to the III/1er R.C.P.[43]. Programs enable foreigners to join the Israel Defense Forces if they are of Jewish descent (which is defined as at least one grandparent). camps",[117] but adds that the number of these recruits has been subsequently exaggerated. The independence of Algeria from the French in 1962 was traumatising since it ended with the enforced abandonment of the barracks command center at Sidi Bel Abbès established in 1842. White linen trousers tucked into short leather leggings were substituted for red serge in hot weather. La Légion étrangère est un corps de l'Armée de terre française disposant d'un commandement particulier et comportant plusieurs subdivisions d'arme: infanterie, cavalerie, génie et troupes aéroportées. [40] On 17 November 1950 the battalion parachuted into That Khé and suffered heavy losses at Coc Xa. [15] The Royal Ordinance for the establishment of the new regiment specified that the foreigners recruited could only serve outside France. Recruits who do enlist with declared identities may, after one year's service, regularise their situations under their true identities. Le recrutement de la Légion étrangère est maintenu. Jean-Marie SABOT 25 photos. La Legion - Toujours en avant. is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831. The foreign battalion formed the backbone of the column launched on Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar. From 1965 to 1967, the Legion operated several companies, including the 5th Heavy Weight Transport Company (CTGP), mainly in charge of evacuating the Sahara. [82] [9] The Legion is the only part of the French military that does not swear allegiance to France, but to the Foreign Legion itself. from the foreign regiments of the Kingdom of France. Moreover, this 'blanket provision' between member-states cannot exclude others for it would seem inappropriate to single out individual countries, that is, France in relation to the Legion. However subsequent colonial campaigns saw an increasing use of special garments for hot weather wear such as collarless keo blouses in Tonkin 1884–85, khaki drill jackets in Dahomey (1892)[87] and drab covered topees worn with all-white fatigue dress in Madagascar[88] (1895).[89]. From its foundation until World War I the Foreign Legion normally wore the uniform of the French line infantry for parade with a few special distinctions. La durée du contrat d'engagement initial du légionnaire est de 5 ans (non négociable).A l'issue de ce premier contrat, le légionnaire optera pour la poursuite de sa carrière par le biais de contrats successifs dont la durée varie entre 6 mois et 5 ans. shipping: + AU $8.08 shipping . Created to fight "outside mainland France", the Foreign Legion was stationed in Algeria, where it took part in the pacification and development of the colony, notably by drying the marshes in the region of Algiers.